Get dense – Conurbate!

30 12 2009

At Texas Christian University’s Tracks to the Future in Fort Worth, former Charlotte Mayor Pat McCrory (a conservative) had this to say: “Have a vision…Show them pictures of what it can look like once you start planning…Avoid the word density…Don’t talk like a planner and don’t use your lingo because politicians don’t understand it and the constituency gets real turned off by the word density. But if you show them a picture of a well-planned development…they’ll say you know what, that’s pretty nice.”

John Stillich: “North American cities and towns will face very serious issues that cannot be addressed using 20th century city-building traditions. A critical issue will be the cost and availability of energy resources for transportation and for indoor heating and cooling. Households, commerce, and the economy as a whole can expect to be hard hit, especially in energy-intensive suburban environments. Linked to the use of energy is its impact on the natural environment: energy production from oil, gas, and coal will produce more pollutants and greenhouse gases per unit of energy delivered as easily-extractable sources dry up, further destabilizing our climate. 20th century land-use practices are also eating away at the agricultural lands that feed us. Population growth, the risk of lower agricultural productivity from climate destabilization and rising energy costs make preserving agricultural lands around cities a key requirement for sustainability and well-being. High urban densities and an intensive mixing of uses are essential for environmental and economic sustainability of residents and local business. Unfortunately, no suburban municipality today is remotely close to achieving sustainability.”

Newburg: Embracing High Density at the Urban Fringe

asladirt: “In 1895, Vandergrift, a western Pennsylvanian town, was created by a steel magnate who wanted a place where his steel workers could ‘work, play and live.’ The steel company owner hired Frederick Law Olmsted, designer of New York City’s central park and master landscape architect, to make this vision a reality and create a ‘livable community.’ Now, more than 110 years later, the residents of Vandergrift are returning to the original Olmsted plan in their efforts to create a sustainable community for the 21st century.”

Anthony Flint (director of public affairs at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy): “You can’t feel good about driving a Prius and be a NIMBY, proclaiming ‘not in my backyard’ anytime a proposal comes along for a little additional density in the neighborhood. Well-designed, walkable, mixed-use, transit-oriented development is more important than all the hybrid taxis and green roofs the city could require. The urban fabric is a key weapon against climate change. Cities allow us to walk, ride a bike, and take transit. “Growing Cooler” showed that compact development – basically, being able to live, work, and shop within a 20-minute radius – can reduce vehicle miles traveled by as much as 30 percent…walking to the corner store for a gallon of milk is one of the greenest contributions any of us can make. Our cities provide that opportunity. But we need more city. That’s where infill redevelopment comes in…But building at these sites is much more difficult than starting from scratch in a cornfield outside the urban periphery. Outdated codes and requirements are among the barriers.”

Andres Duany(What is the biggest impediment to smart growth?) Citizen participation in the planning process is probably the biggest roadblock. If you ask people what they want, they don’t want density. They don’t want mixed use. They don’t want transit. They don’t even want a bike path in their back yard. They don’t want a grid that connects, they want cul-de-sacs. They can’t see the long term benefits of walkable neighborhoods with a greater diversity of housing types…(The Smart Growth Manual) is a response to the empowerment of citizens in planning. The public process has become very broadly based—it’s expected now [that citizens will participate in charettes] and often the outcome is questionable. That has to do with expertise. So this manual is for elected officials and for citizens who participate in the [planning] process.”

Jay Walljasper: “The year 2010 may be remembered as a turning point in many American cities, towns and suburbs. It could be the moment when citizens say ‘enough is enough’ and rally to save essential public services from the chopping block, even if it means paying higher local taxes. Or it could be time when deep gashes in funding for parks, libraries, education, public safety, transit, health and other cornerstones of the commons good bring many communities to their knees, ushering in age of reckless privatization and steep decline in quality of life as local governments are unable to provide for the basic needs of their citizens.”

John Gurda: “The day may come when librarians have to leave a key under the doormat at each neighborhood branch, when homicides are reported to a call center in Bangalore, when every household is expected to bury its own garbage and to keep its own fire bucket at the front door.”

Luther Propst: “Ten years ago, a small group of citizens concerned about the growing impact of poorly planned growth created the Montana Smart Growth Coalition to help preserve the high quality of life in the state. The Coalition, now with over 40 member groups, advocates for laws and regulations that will lead to sustainable, affordable, and attractive community growth patterns while also protecting open spaces in a rapidly developing Montana. Their passion, commitment, and hard work have paid off (…when) the Montana Legislature enacted seven new smart growth statutes…The Act will improve the public notice process for development proposals and zoning changes, opening the door for more public participation. The Act also allows counties to use ‘interim zoning’ as an effective tool to give communities the time they need to plan for unexpected growth.”

Energy and water are the same thing

28 12 2009

The Placemaking Institute has gleaned that, according to a 2007 report from the U.S. Geological Survey, the United States uses 47% of all its water to produce energy; moving water through the nation’s extensive dam and canal system alone requires huge amounts of energy. For example, the Central Arizona Project, a 336-mile diversion canal that diverts Colorado River water to Phoenix and Tucson, 43% of the 2010 operating budget is expected to go towards buying energy. As such, our Most Senior Fellow ensues the following roundtable discussion:

Kevin Ferguson: “It has long been an axiom of infrastructure planning that it takes a lot of water to make electricity, and a lot of electricity to make water. Each day, for example, the nation’s thermoelectric power plants (90 percent of all power plants in the United States), draw 136 billion gallons of water from lakes, rivers and oceans to cool the steam used to drive turbines, according to the Department of Energy. In recent years, the energy department says, plans for new power plants had to be scrapped because water-use permits could not be obtained. For their part, water- and wastewater utilities consume at least 13 percent of the electricity drawn nationwide each day.”

Nate Berg: “With the one arm he had left after fighting for the Union during the Civil War, John Wesley Powell led a team of 10 men and four boats on what was likely the most extreme and adventurous fact-finding mission since Lewis and Clark stumbled upon the West Coast of North America. It was 1869, and…as the Homestead Act was pushing farmers westward and checkerboarding the uninhabited territories, Powell compiled his experiences exploring the rivers and lands of the western U.S. into a report and presented it to Congress in 1875. He advised an almost complete halt to the settlement of the West, suggesting that the western U.S. wouldn’t be able to support agriculture without extensive irrigation, and that without a more scientifically-based distribution of water rights, any further settlement would lead to devastation. Watersheds, he said, should define the location and extent of land settlement. Congress summarily dismissed his suggestions. Instead, the country was taken into a century-long binge of engineering projects to command and control the rivers of the Western United States – corralling and contorting wild rivers to meet the needs of the growing west and, in many cases, dictating how and where it would grow.”

Bradley Udall (director of the University of Colorado’s Western Water Assessment): “All water planning in the 20th Century was based on this idea of stationality – that you could use the water flow patterns of the past to predict the future. That’s not a solution we’re going to rely on in the 21st Century.”

Deanna Archuleta (U.S. Department of the Interior Deputy Assistant Secretary): “You will never see another federal dam.”

Michael Ogden (founding director of the design, engineering and management firm Natural Systems International): “It’s all water. You can’t separate them. Whenever you think about a project, you’ve got to think about all three – rain, potable water and wastewater.”

Shaun McKinnon: “Water users from the seven Colorado River states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming) are expected to ratify a regional drought plan this week in Las Vegas, ending years of bickering over how to balance uncertain resources with growing demand. The heart of the plan is the heart of the river system, its two largest reservoirs along Arizona’s northern borders. Lake Powell and Lake Mead hold not only the water needed to survive long dry periods but also the key to a landmark deal meant to give the states a chance to find longer-lasting solutions…(They) had never written a drought plan because they never needed one. The region survived a severe dry stretch in the 1950s, before growth pushed up demand. And when a string of wet years followed, the states instead adopted rules to manage surplus water. Almost before those rules took effect, drought hit again. Faced with potential shortages and threats from the Interior secretary to impose a federal solution, water users started talking about what happens if the river can’t supply demands. Until now, separate rules governed the way water flowed from Lake Powell – which was built to benefit Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming – into Lake Mead, which stores water for Arizona, California and Nevada.”

Kirk Johnson: “Who owns the sky, anyway? In most of the country, that is a question for philosophy class or bad poetry. In the West, lawyers parse it with straight faces and serious intent. The result, especially stark here in the Four Corners area of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah, is a crazy quilt of rules and regulations. Precipitation, every last drop or flake, was assigned ownership from the moment it fell in many Western states, making scofflaws of people who scooped rainfall from their own gutters. In some instances, the rights to that water were assigned a century or more ago. Now two new laws in Colorado will allow many people to collect rainwater legally.”

Elgin Courier: “According to a press release from the Texas AgriLife Extension Service, drought losses for Texas crop and livestock producers has reached $3.6 billion and could exceed $4.1 billion by the end of the year. The service also reported that livestock losses have topped $974 million since November of 2008, an increase of more than $400 million since March, 2009. In one week’s time recently, 12,000 head of cattle were either sold or taken out of the county to sell or moved to another pasture from Bastrop, Lee, Caldwell and Williamson counties…If you take 12,000 head of cattle out of these counties, there is a big reduction in production and these were not cull cattle. Cattle were culled in April — these were pairs that were left…In 14 or 15 months, there can be a $50 million economic loss, which compares to losses in a flood.”

Ellen Goodman: “I am not the only one who looks at lawns — including my own — as a populist enemy. The low grassy surface has its roots in the English aristocracy, among folks who had so much food and land they didn’t have to farm it, they only had to display it. Today, lawns cover 40 million acres, making them the largest agricultural sector in America. They consume 270 billion gallons of water a week, or enough for 81 million acres of organic vegetables. They suck up $40 billion a year on seed, sod and chemicals, leading one historian to compare them to ‘a nationwide chemical experiment with homeowners as the guinea pigs.'”

Fritz Haeg (creator of the Edible Estates project): “It’s actually devouring resources and polluting and happening in the most visible parts of our community — the vacant land between the house and the street.”

Walter Molony (a senior public affairs real estate specialist): “I think it’s safe to say that by far the lion’s share of new homes have lawns. It would be a small, single-digit percentage that do not.”

Ann Croissant (founder and president of the San Gabriel Mountains Regional Conservancy): “We need a hydrologist at every design table.”


What is “urbanity” anymore?

23 12 2009

(A roundtable discussion here at The Placemaking Institute)

Harry Moroz: “Today’s mayors enjoy the same access to President Obama as their predecessors did to FDR, but so far they’re seeing different results: deteriorating urban conditions and a stimulus package adapted to the needs of state governors…Last summer, when Obama was still on the campaign trail, he seemed eager to listen…These arguments won mayors a candid and bipartisan relationship with the White House…In the midst of this promising dialogue, however, the economic crisis has taken a firm hold…Now mayors are pointing out that the stimulus package was supposed to help cities avoid this nightmare scenario.”

Stamford, Connecticut, Mayor Dannel Malloy: “I think we were listened to…I just think we were then ignored. And I don’t think we were necessarily ignored by the president. I think we were ignored by the Congress.”

Vice President Biden: “Congress, in its wisdom, decided that the governors should have a bigger input.”

Thomas Mann: “Obama’s hands were all over this bill from start to finish. … The nitty-gritty legislative work identifying where and how these decisions could be implemented … was done in Congress with the direct participation of key Obama administration staff.”

Michael Cooper/Griff Palmer: “(The federal government left the details up to states, which) “have a long history of giving short shrift to major metropolitan areas..(After looking at approved transportation projects in all 50 states) it is clear that the stimulus program will continue that pattern of spending disproportionately on rural areas.”

Gold Collar: How State Job Subsidies in the Chicago Region Favor Affluent Suburbs

Craig Muckle, Safeway’s Eastern Division manager of public affairs/government relations for (via Robert Steuteville): “We are definitely focusing on stores in our urban core and will not be building stores in urban areas that are growth dependent.”

Seth Harry, an architect in Woodbine, Maryland, who has retail expertise (via Robert Steuteville): “(The housing meltdown has had a significant impact. Supermarket operators can no longer build in the distant suburbs in the expectation that thousands of housing units will soon spring up to support the store) (because) that model is more or less dead. Even the guys who built empires based on that model are recognizing that they are looking at a new paradigm.”

Philip Langdon: “New urbanist developers see food production as a vital feature of future residential and mixed use communities. In recent years, Americans have become increasingly concerned about where their food is grown, whether it’s free of contaminants, how far it’s transported, and how consumers can gain a more satisfying relationship to agriculture. These concerns are causing more and more farms and gardens to be planned, and planted, in new urbanist developments. Laurel, a traditional neighborhood development (TND) that was recently laid out in Yuma, Arizona will contain a 25-acre community farm. Serenbe, a TND in Palmetto, Georgia, southwest of Atlanta, is regionally renowned for high-quality food production.”

Sean Patrick Farrell: “The call to forge deeper connections with the food we eat has pulled thousands to the nation’s farmers’ markets, sprouted a million backyard seedlings and jump-started an interest in scratch baking, canning and other county-fair pursuits. Now add hunting to the list. Novice urban hunters are forming classes and clubs to learn skills that a few generations ago were often passed down from parent to child…Nationwide, the number of hunters has been in decline for decades. The country’s shift from rural to urban life is the main reason, said Mark Damian Duda, executive director of Responsive Management, a survey and research firm that specializes in natural resources and outdoor recreation issues.”

Amanda Harrell-Seyburn/Neal McNamara: “Lansing (Michigan) is in an excellent position to cast off the separate-use mentality of the last half-century. The city has piqued the interest of developers — some of whom helped build sprawl — to start looking at the city as a place to build up rather than abandon. Lansing is embarking on its first meaningful master plan revision since 1958 (coincidentally, around the time that cities started to be destroyed). And the City Council, spurred by a large group of committed citizens, recently passed a “complete streets” ordinance, which could help calm some of our more dangerous thoroughfares for walkers and bikers (and save room for the precious cars)…The development practices that have gutted our cities are destined to fail, so we must act now to ensure that future development is sustainable and healthy for our mental and physical environment.”

Get Smart

21 12 2009

We here at The Placemaking Institute have been researching transit improvements that are happening in Rhode Island which, after Michigan and New York, has been most affected long-term by our recent recession. And yet they are still deeming it integral as part of their rebirth that they invest heavily in multi-modality. Their arguments for proceeding are quite compelling and could very well be applied to the rest of the country. Although Texas in general and Austin in particular have fared relatively well the past couplathree years, our Most Senior Fellow argues that it’s better to learn from past mistakes and act sooner rather than later when it comes to forestalling socio-economic illth.

David N. Cicillini (Mayor of Providence): “As this report details, future economic growth requires reversing the congestion that increasingly clogs our roads and highways. We have to go beyond short-term, stopgap measures like adding new lanes to highways. The real solution lies in creating a great transit system that attracts new passengers, including those who today choose to drive, while continuing to serve riders of the current system. The economic development imperative for transit is made more urgent today by the interrelated challenges of rising energy prices, risky dependence on foreign oil supplies, dwindling global fossil fuel reserves, and the environmental toll of oil consumption including poor air quality, loss of open space, and climate change. It is my hope this report helps to advance the goal of building a stronger transit system by increasing public understanding of the value and benefits of transit, and by identifying transit options deserving further study.”

Growing Smart with Transit: “Rhode Island needs to make an investment to develop and maintain a seamless, integrated, high quality transit service that builds on and complements the existing system. An investment in transit will yield numerous benefits: decreased congestion on our roadways; increased economic development potential Statewide; improved environmental quality, including reducing greenhouse gas emissions that threaten significant climate change; a better position for the City and State in competition with metropolitan areas making significant transit investments; preservation of the quality of life that distinguishes Rhode Island by supporting smart growth and preserving open spaces; an opportunity to meet the needs of the State’s changing demographics characterized by an aging population, growing urban communities, and new citizens who expect and rely on robust transit.”

Daniel Barbarisi: “While the study’s larger ideas may be far off, the report does address some quick-fix options for improving transit in Providence. It suggests “branding” bus routes, as Boston does with its red line or silver line designations, or labeling certain routes for their significant uses, like a “meds and eds” route for hospitals and colleges, or an “arts and entertainment” route… the system plans to roll out a number of high-tech improvements in the near future, including computerized signs providing real-time bus arrival estimates, electronic-fare buses, flexible passes, and new security features on its buses… (RIPTA) is looking at moving from its hub-and-spoke model to one of multiple bus “nodes” around the city…(The report) envisions streetcars running on rails on several corridors through the city (and) also mentions exploring light rail in and around Providence, but light rail is expensive — roughly $30 million for a mile of track, depending on conditions. But streetcars can accomplish much the same thing, for anywhere from $3 million to $10 million a mile..The report also recommends creating disincentives for the use of the automobile, advocating legislation that pressures large public companies to reduce their employees’ reliance on cars.”

R.I. Department of Transportation: “Gross economic impacts to the State of Rhode Island as a result of construction and on-going operations of the proposed project are significant. State-wide gross impacts due to in-state station construction and vehicle assembly expenditures would range from $36 to $51 million in total output or economic activity, generating anywhere from 450 to 610 person-year jobs with earnings from $11 to $16 million…The gross multiplied effects of expenditures on O&M result in $8 to $11 million in additional output or economic activity, generating from 75 to 100 person-year jobs with earnings in the range of $2.5 to $3.2 million…

“In order to help evaluate the project’s economic feasibility from a benefit-cost perspective, the user and related economic benefits of travel time savings, accident reduction benefits, vehicle operating cost savings and emissions reductions attributable to the SCCRS were quantified. These were then compared to capital and ongoing O&M costs to calculate benefit-cost ratios, net present values, and economic rates of return for each of the operating alternatives. These economic evaluation measures indicate that none of the proposed operating alternatives would be economically feasible strictly on the merits of those benefits which were quantified. However, the proposed project may offer many non-quantifiable benefits that are not easily captured by the analyses summarized above. These benefits include the provision of an additional transportation mode choice, support of regional land use goals, economic development opportunities, generation of positive economic activity, and more efficient utilization of existing transportation infrastructure.”

Elizabeth Warren: “Today, one in five Americans is unemployed, underemployed or just plain out of work. One in nine families can’t make the minimum payment on their credit cards. One in eight mortgages is in default or foreclosure. One in eight Americans is on food stamps. More than 120,000 families are filing for bankruptcy every month. The economic crisis has wiped more than $5 trillion from pensions and savings, has left family balance sheets upside down, and threatens to put ten million homeowners out on the street. Families have survived the ups and downs of economic booms and busts for a long time, but the fall-behind during the busts has gotten worse while the surge-ahead during the booms has stalled out. In the boom of the 1960s, for example, median family income jumped by 33% (adjusted for inflation). But the boom of the 2000s resulted in an almost-imperceptible 1.6% increase for the typical family. While Wall Street executives and others who owned lots of stock celebrated how good the recovery was for them, middle class families were left empty-handed…The contrast with the big banks could not be sharper. While the middle class has been caught in an economic vise, the financial industry that was supposed to serve them has prospered at their expense. Consumer banking — selling debt to middle class families — has been a gold mine. Boring banking has given way to creative banking, and the industry has generated tens of billions of dollars annually in fees made possible by deceptive and dangerous terms buried in the fine print of opaque, incomprehensible, and largely unregulated contracts. And when various forms of this creative banking triggered economic crisis, the banks went to Washington for a handout.”

Contriving Multi-Modal Contrivances

16 12 2009

Confucious says “By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third, by experience, which is bitterest.”

The Placemaking Institute notices it has been duly noted here that “the draft reauthorization of the Federal Surface Transportation Program in the House of Representatives is filled with initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, often by seeking to encourage compact development (smart growth) policies. Dr. Ronald D. Utt of the Heritage Foundation discovered an interesting definition in the House of Representatives’ draft of the federal surface transportation program: ‘sustainable modes of transportation means public transit, walking, and bicycling.'”

And it is also therefore argued that: “This definition …is irrational and the worst kind of ideology… The wording may betray an agenda more concerned with forcing people to accept the favored (and anti-suburban) lifestyles that an urban elite has long sought to impose on others than it is to reduce greenhouse gases…Provisions that pick particular strategies, without regard to their effectiveness, have no place in a crusade so much of the scientific community has characterized in apocalyptic terms. Moreover, such disingenuousness, in the longer run, could whittle away the already apparently declining support for reducing greenhouse gas emissions… It is possible, of course, that this is simply sloppy legislative drafting. But given the persistence of the compact development lobby and its contribution to pending legislation in Washington in the face of respected research demonstrating its scant potential, something else may be operating.” In sum, according to certain sources, The U.S. House of Representatives is outright “contriving sustainability” with this housing and transit program.

But our Most Senior Fellow feels he must broaden this contrivance that’s being contrived in this manner by oh so strenuously contriving his patented: “Bosh! Because in fact this fair country of ours is one great big legislative contrivance! Everything we contrive today results from contrivances; each of us are nothing but contrivances (some much more so than others) and, of course, the auto-centric U.S. housing/transportation system as we know it today did not always exist and was itself contrived. If one mode of contrivance is so great, why can’t another be?”

“In 1949, President Harry Truman convinced Congress to break with the past and inject the federal government into the process of developing cities and financing housing. The 1949 Housing Act expanded the availability of federal insurance for home mortgages, igniting the growth of new suburbs farther and farther from the centers of our cities. Together with federal highway funds that came a few years later, the 1949 law started what we now describe as ‘suburban sprawl.’ The two initiatives put Americans on the path of long commutes, heavy traffic, air pollution, water shortages, and a long-term increase in carbon dioxide emissions.” Or, unlike Truman, is one merely afraid of breaking with the past because he’ll lose some plum sinecure or fulcrum for emotional well-being? (Martin Luther King: “The ultimate measure of man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy.”)

Because the whole Federal Housing Act (1949) plus Federal Aid Highway Act (1956) what can only be termed “experimental contrivance” has always been heavily subsidized (contriving schools on the fringe, contriving sewer and water lines to sprawling development, contriving emergency services to the fringe, and contriving direct pay-outs to developers; one case in point) and has only been increasingly unsustainably contrived, especially beginning in the early 1970s (which is when the U.S. production of oil peaked, forcing us to contrive ourselves farther abroad), and now we as a society can no longer afford contriving ourselves like this anymore – Just look at the costs being accrued in Iraq and Afghanistan over our ravening thirst-driven need for contriving our oil supply! One should consider that veritable payment in blood nothing but an American-lifestyle subsidy, no?

The former chairman of the Texas House of Representatives Transportation Committee Mike Krusee himself recently contrived this: “What we found was that no road that we built in Texas paid for itself. None.” And the Texas Transportation Institute contrives this: “If a region’s vehicle-miles of travel were to increase by five percent per year, roadway lane-miles would need to increase by five percent each year to maintain the initial congestion level;” (our) “analysis shows that it would be almost impossible to attempt to maintain a constant congestion level with road construction only. Over the past 2 decades, less than 50 percent of the needed mileage was actually added. This means that it would require at least twice the level of current-day road expansion funding to attempt this road construction strategy. An even larger problem would be to find suitable roads that can be widened, or areas where roads can be added, year after year.”

But let’s please never mind, dear audience, arguing about constructing new roadways; we can’t afford to maintain the already existing roadways. The infrastructure is quite literally falling apart, which means that among other things freight (one main component in the recent spike in freight costs is the increasing need to maintain eighteen wheelers and VMT upticks due to such things as dilapidated bridge closings) will no longer be able to move in its current manner. Nor will people. Furthermore, most of our foodstuffs are imported as are most other goods, and our whole global system of economic growth is predicated upon GDP (Simon Kuznets: “The welfare of a nation can scarcely be inferred from a measure of national income” ) and subsidized-so-it-can-be-cheap consumption of energy. The global production of oil has nearly reached its peak point (some illustrious thinking folk well-connected in the biz argue that it already has in Saudi Arabia), which is going to have extreme ramifications, one of the effects obviously being our society becoming much less global and much more local in nature.

Most economists are asserting that this young generation of ours will fare worse than their parents’ generation, the first time that that has happened in American history. (Thomas Jefferson: “No generation can contract debts greater than may be paid during the course of its own existence.”) And it still amazes this Most Senior Fellow how entrenched plutocrats and their minions have been and are still willing to sacrifice another and yet another generation upon future generations (Henry Kissinger: “90,000 people, well, that’s not that many people in the greater scheme of things.”) even when staring at the End Game of this un-sustainably contrived, heavily subsidized contrivance our society calls “sprawl.” When oil production peaks then subsequently dwindles, our whole economy will also begin doing so as will thus our whole contrived so-called American Dream way of life.

It was nice seeing PriceWaterhouseCoopers’ recent market analysis: “Next-generation projects will orient to infill, urbanizing suburbs, and transit-oriented development. Smaller housing units-close to mass transit, work, and 24-hour amenities – gain favor over large houses on big lots at the suburban edge. People will continue to seek greater convenience and want to reduce energy expenses. Shorter commutes and smaller heating bills make up for higher infill real estate costs;” and Robert “Boom-burb” Lang’s recent observation that “bedroom communities now must rethink their future and become a little less sprawly, a little more village-like with clustered development, denser housing. The irony is that if they want to keep growing, they must grow as cities, which is diametrically opposite of how they got so big in the first place.” But and alas, however, we here at The Placemaking Institute wonder?

Even our starting to do something about rectifying these past mistakes first thing tomorrow may be a case of too little too late, which is a crying shame…It’s a shame, how those towns beyond a fifty mile proximity to Interstates have been allowed to die (i.e. America’s Heartland). It’s a shame, how both our domestic agricultural and industrial capacity has been so extensively desiccated via outsourcing. And it’s a shame, how our intraurban and Interstate Rail System was destroyed, an act that among others General Motors and Standard Oil were convicted for conspiring against the public’s welfare. At this point, arguing ourselves blue in the face about such things as which is better at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, a gas-based tax or a VMT-based tax or congestion pricing or free public transit for all? (Malcolm X: “Don’t let the power structure maneuver you into a time-wasting battle with others when you could be involved in something that’s constructive and getting a real job done.”) We are very quickly nearing if not already beyond the point where those arguments amount to nothing more than rearranging the deck chairs in order to keep this ship of ours from sinking. Because much sooner rather than later we the people are going to have no choice but more compact development.

And this session of ours shall close today with a quiet echoing of the words Truman used when signing the Federal Housing Act: “We must break from the past…”

… – But as always our Most Senior Fellow must get the last word: “Now. Either that or we should just go ahead and let the government dissolve the people altogether and then appoint another one.”  After ripping off Brecht in this manner, “That is all,” concludes he.

We have to make choices

14 12 2009

(A roundtable discussion here at The Placemaking Institute)

Jeffrey R. Brown/Gregory L. Thompson: “There is debate about the relative merits of investing in rail or express bus modes to improve regional transit performance. The debate largely assumes that both modes serve a single function of providing higherspeed service to the central business district (CBD) over relatively long travel distances. The debate generally overlooks other functions that might be served by express bus and rail transit modes and thus ignores that the two modes may perform differently depending on the service mission they are assigned. Performance of the two modes is examined in four metropolitan areas with different strategies for providing high-quality, regional transit service: a CBD-focused strategy, a hybrid strategy that serves the CBD and a few other destinations, and a multidestination strategy that serves a widely dispersed set of destinations…It was found that the combination of a rail transit backbone and a multidestination service strategy leads to better performance than any other marriage of mode and mission.”

Austin Business Journal: “Austin City Council members agreed Thursday to spend $1 million on a preliminary engineering study for the Austin urban rail plan. The city signed a deal with local firm Austin Urban Rail Partners to complete the study. Officials hope to have the results in time for an expected vote on the rail plan next November. The effort is part of the Austin mobility program, which aims to mitigate traffic. The project is separate from the Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority’s rail line and does not involved Cap Metro.”

The NYC Department of Health announced the results of a citywide survey today assessing the health benefits of regular walking and biking. Based on telephone interviews with more than 10,000 New Yorkers, the health department reveals that people who incorporate walking and biking into their daily routine are significantly more likely to report good physical and mental health than those who don’t. The report concludes with recommendations to encourage walking and biking, including steps like building safer infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists.”

Transportation Reform is Health Reform

elliot: “The City of Austin held the first of three design and feedback open houses for Austin’s first bicycle boulevard proposed for Nueces Street from 3rd Street to MLK, Jr Boulevard. The Nueces Street Bike Boulevard was part of the Master Bicycle Plan unanimously adopted by the Austin City Council in June…Though cyclists made up a majority in attendance, the majority of comments came from property owners who were universally negative. Most owners moderated their comments by suggesting the proposed boulevard be moved to Rio Grande Street. While there appeared to be merits to either street being used, it wasn’t clear that the owners weren’t just trying to pass off the concept to other property owners on Rio Grande, many of whom were not in attendance.”

David Weiner: “In response to last week’s removal of bike lanes in the traditionally Hasidic neighborhood in Brooklyn, a group of local bike riders took it upon themselves to repaint the lane lines running down Bedford Avenue. The Hasids had asked the city to remove the bike lanes from the neighborhood, claiming the influx of bikers posed a “safety and religious hazard.” In an interesting twist, the group of guerrilla line painters reportedly included members of the Hasidic community who are not opposed to the lanes. Last year the religious group complained to the community board that many of the young, female cyclists who rode through the neighborhood were “hotties,” who “ride in shorts and skirts,” both of which are against their dress code.”

Ben Adler: “(Strasbourg, France’s) downtown is filled with department stores, teenagers of any ethnicity sporting a European style that takes a lot of inspiration from their American counterparts of five years ago, and shwarma shops competing with McDonald’s for their attention. But walk around Strasbourg’s charming medieval city center and you will see that one thing is virtually unchanged from its medieval origins: the absence of automobiles. This is not, however, an uninterrupted history. In fact, it is the direct result of actions recently taken by Strasbourg’s government — ones that should inspire comparably sized older American cities, from Buffalo to St. Louis. Just like most American cities, the car’s midcentury domination had largely forced public transportation out of Strasbourg. The once-extensive tram lines fell into disrepair, and the last one was taken out of service in 1960. But by 1989 traffic and parking had become major headaches for residents and for businesses in the dense warren of downtown streets. Rather than see retail flee to suburban malls, as it did in America, the city decided to take action…Some might attribute this phenomenon entirely to a cultural difference, arguing that the French will take advantage of bike paths and trains but Americans will not. But the Strasbourgers I interviewed, whether politicians, pedestrians or businesspeople, all told me that the French, like Americans, have an emotional attachment to their automobiles, and that it is ultimately a political choice to encourage or discourage driving. Absent the incentive structure set up by Strasbourg, the French will take the path of least resistance — a car, whenever possible — just like Americans.”

Alain Jund (a member of Parliament who works on transportation policy): “We had meetings around the city and three things came up: One, there are too many cars in public places. Two, ‘I don’t have a place to park my car.’ And three, we need public transportation. There was a contradiction. As politicians we had to make choices.”

Ethan Arpi: “Los Angeles’ Metro is doing something that no transit agency in the country has ever done: it’s marketing its products and services as if it were a private company bent on turning a profit. But for Metro marketing isn’t about increasing the bottom line. It’s about reducing traffic, cleaning the air and making people’s commutes in this auto-clogged city a bit less stressful.”

Dubai: Rand’s Roark Writ Right (i.e., Wrong)

10 12 2009

(a roundtable discussion here at The Placemaking Institute)

Howard Roark: “The egotist in the absolute sense is not the man who sacrifices others. He is the man who stands above the need of using others in any manner. He does not function through them. He is not concerned with them in any primary matter. Not in his aim, not in his motive, not in his thinking, not in his desires, not in the source of his energy. He does not exist for any other man — and he asks no other man to exist for him. This is the only form of brotherhood and mutual respect possible between men.”

Christopher Corbett: “With about 1.6 million residents, Dubai is the largest city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a confederation of seven emirates that extend along the coast at the southern end of the Arabian Gulf. Ninety miles down the coast from Dubai is Abu Dhabi, the federal capital and second-largest city in the country, with a population of about one million. It is also the largest city in Abu Dhabi Emirate, a West Virginia-sized expanse of sand that accounts for 86% of the total land area of the UAE. Along with reputedly the world’s largest sand dunes, it is also where most of the oil, both off-shore and on-shore, is found. The six remaining emirates, including Dubai itself, are essentially city states.”

Mike Davis: “As your jet starts its descent, you are glued to your window. The scene below is astonishing: a 24-square-mile archipelago of coral-coloured islands in the shape of an almost-finished puzzle of the world. In the shallow green waters between continents, the sunken shapes of the Pyramids of Giza and the Roman Colosseum are clearly visible. In the distance, three other large island groups are configured as palms within crescents and planted with high-rise resorts, amusement parks and a thousand mansions built on stilts over the water. The ‘Palms’ are connected by causeways to a Miami-like beachfront crammed with mega-hotels, apartment skyscrapers and yachting marinas. As the plane slowly banks toward the desert mainland, you gasp at the even more improbable vision ahead. Out of a chrome forest of skyscrapers soars a new Tower of Babel. It is an impossible half-mile high: taller than the Empire State Building stacked on top of itself.”

Dubai’s Age of Excess

Davis: “The lodestone of Dubai, of course, is ‘peak oil’ and each time you spend $50 to fill your tank, you are helping to irrigate al-Maktoum’s oasis. Fuel prices are currently inflated by industrial China’s soaring demand as well as growing fears of war and terrorism in the global oil patch. According to the Wall Street Journal, ‘consumers will [have paid] $1.2 trillion more in 2004 and 2005 together for oil products than they did in 2003’. As in the 1970s, a huge and disruptive transfer of wealth is taking place between oil-consuming and oil-producing nations. Already visible on the horizon, moreover, is Hubbert’s Peak, the tipping point when new petroleum reserves will no longer offset global demand, and thereafter oil prices will become truly stratospheric. In some utopian economic model, perhaps, this windfall would become an investment fund for shifting the global economy to renewable energy while reducing greenhouse gas output and raising the environmental efficiency of urban systems. In the real world of capitalism, however, it has become a subsidy for the apocalyptic luxuries that Dubai is coming to epitomize.”

Eric Ellis: “Dubai’s economy expanded by 35 percent in 2006, and about 20 percent last year. It’s not oil ‑ that ran out decades ago. Dubai’s rags-to-riches miracle relies on an age-old business plan: slave labor in the form of millions of poor Sri Lankans, Indians, Pakistanis, Filipinos and Africans working up to 80 hour-plus weeks. They have built this gleaming oasis. With their passports seized as insurance, these bonded workers toil in near year-round 45-50 degree heat for about $US8 a day.”

Dubai’s Dirty Little Secret

Roark: “The creator lives for his work. He needs no other men. His primary goal is within himself. The parasite lives second-hand. He needs others. Others become his prime motive…To a creator, all relations with men are secondary…The man who attempts to live for others is a dependent. He is a parasite in motive and makes parasites of those he serves.”

Davis: “If the current mega-project blitzkrieg, exemplified by Dubailand, succeeds as planned, Dubai will derive all of its gdp from non-oil activities like tourism and finance by 2010…Will Dubai someday fall from the sky when this real-estate balloon bursts, or will peak oil keep this desert Laputa floating above the contradictions of the world economy?”

Al-Maktoum: “I would like to tell capitalists that Dubai does not need investors; investors need Dubai. And I tell you that the risk lies not in using your money, but in letting it pile up.”

Corbett: “I’m a senior planner at the Dubai office of a large international consultant. When I arrived early last year, things were jumping. My company couldn’t hire enough staff for all the active projects we had. Hundred-story skyscrapers and mega malls seemed to sprouting from the sand all around us. But I knew that I was late to the party and already by early Fall 2008 there were signs that the boom was coming to an end. Then the layoffs started. The first “unpaid leave” notices were passed out in our office on December 31st. I’m one of the lucky ones, still here after what had become a monthly ritual of ever more staff cuts. There’s a hopeful feeling now that the worst may be over. Meantime, some say that it was good for the boom came to an end, at least so Dubai’s infrastructure development could catch up.”

Barbara Surk: “Just a year after the global downturn derailed Dubai’s explosive growth, the city is now so swamped in debt that it’s asking for a six-month reprieve on paying its bills – causing a drop on world markets Thursday and raising questions about Dubai’s reputation as a magnet for international investment…In total, the state-backed networks nicknamed Dubai Inc. are $80 billion in the red and the emirate needed a bailout earlier this year from its oil-rich neighbor Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates.”

Eurasia Group: “Dubai’s standstill announcement…was vague and it remains difficult to discern whether the call for a standstill will be voluntary…If it is not, Dubai World will be going into default and that will have more serious negative repercussions for Dubai’s sovereign debt, Dubai World and market confidence in the UAE in general.”

Edward L. Glaeser: “Dubai World has more in common with ambitious American real estate developers than with the sovereign wealth fund of neighboring Abu Dhabi, which takes that emirate’s vast oil earnings and invests them worldwide. Dubai has few petrodollars and Dubai World is borrowing billions to build a glittering commercial metropolis on the edge of sand and sea. The glint of hubris has long shone off the glass walls of Dubai’s soaring skyscrapers, but overreaching ambition always lies behind the creation of great cities…While Dubai’s good infrastructure, pro-business government and consumer amenities may enable the city to eventually succeed as a connector between the West, the Middle East and India, Dubai has now massively overbuilt relative to the level of current demand. Dubai now has the tallest building in the world, and 11 skyscrapers that are taller than any European building. Fifty-story buildings are an efficient way to deliver plenty of space, but extreme height is far more expensive and a bellwether of irrational exuberance.”

Corbett: “Since this was written, Dubai’s financial situation has become front-page news around the world. For those us working in Dubai, especially in the development sector (that would include planners), we have known about this for some time. Difficulties related to the payment of impending installments on debt by several large property developers in Dubai (notably US $3.5 billion Islamic bond coming due on December 14th owed by developer Nakheel) have been openly reported in the local press over the last several months, which makes me surprised that the financial markets around the word reacted as if they didn’t know.”

Glaeser: “Even if Dubai’s real estate prices continue to drop, which is certainly quite possible, there will remain a strong incentive to fill its buildings. If the structures remain occupied, then Dubai, and its sheik’s dream of a great metropolis, will survive.”

All the news that’s fit for you (VII)

9 12 2009

“Are Central Texans ready to drive less so that we can become a more sustainable region? Well, about half of us are, suggests a recent survey by the Capital Area Metropolitan Planning Organization. So correspondingly, the CAMPO Transportation Policy Board – which decides how federal transportation funds get spread among local road and transit projects – agreed this month to pursue a long-range plan that devotes about half of its future budgets to more “sustainable” projects. (That is, projects that support density over sprawl and that create alternatives to driving – in the interest of air quality, the environment, climate action, and citizens’ pocketbooks.) As logical a policy as cutting the baby in half? Perhaps. But the Nov. 9 board commitment does signal a sea-change shift for Central Texas away from our historical top three transportation priorities: new roads, big roads, and more roads”:

“The City of Austin’s push toward a November 2010 passenger rail referendum could pick up speed Thursday, when the City Council will consider a $1 million contract to design a route and refine what has been a rough $600 million cost estimate”:

“Analyzing Federal Highway Administration data dating back to 1957, the dawn of the Interstate system, Subsidyscope researchers found that non-users of the highway system contributed $70 billion for nationwide road construction and maintenance in 2007. In 1982, by contrast, highway contributions from non-users totaled just $35 billion (in 2007 dollars). Today’s study also found that the share of road funding generated by user fees fell to 51 percent in 2007, down from 61 percent just a decade earlier…What has caused the government’s increasingly rapid dependence on non-road user fees — which more often than not take the form of direct transfers from the Treasury — to pay for roads? Subsidyscope points out that the federal gas tax has stayed stagnant since 1993, rapidly losing value as inflation climbs, but the growing popularity of bond issuances as a way to pay for new roads is also a factor”:

“Forty, fifty years ago, (pedestrian safety was an afterthought).” “U.S. 40 is classified as a principal arterial highway – a category of road that was identified in a recent report as especially hazardous for pedestrians. These are the heavily used, generally four-lane or more highways where pedestrian traffic is not separated from vehicular traffic as it is on interstates. They are typically roads that preceded the interstate system and evolved in an era where the car was king. The report earlier this month by Transportation for America and the Surface Transportation Policy Project identified highway design as one of the main culprits in pedestrian fatalities. Entitled “Dangerous by Design,” the study said an analysis of federal data showed that more than half of the 9,091 pedestrians killed on U.S. highways in 2007-2008 died on principal or minor arterial roads. According to the report, such roads are especially dangerous when they run through urban areas – accounting for 56 percent of pedestrian deaths…”It’s the fact that everything is so spread out that it’s hard to know where pedestrians are really going to want to cross the roadway,” said Andrew E. Ramisch, a consulting engineer with the Product and Highway Safety Institute in Montgomery Village”:

“In general, intersection density in metro Portland needs to grow about six-fold to achieve the walkability, mobility, and environmental benefits that the smart growth movement is aiming for, according to Gwin. If that happens, people will drive less.  Carbon emissions will fall. The goal, as he sees it, is creation of ‘transit-oriented communities’ — something broader than ‘transit-oriented development,’ which tends to be concentrated close to the transit stations. ‘For us to have the kind of environments we want, we have to find a way to fund the local street network…I can’t see any other way than through federal policy.’ Federal funds are allocated mainly to highways and arterial roads, with the intention of increasing mobility and reducing congestion. Gwin thinks a portion of this money should be shifted to local street networks. ‘We’re going to have to recognize there’s not as much importance in creating state networks as in creating local streets — to make good cities'”:

“Prior to the financial crisis, our study and others had concluded that the current baby-boom cohort of near retirees were surprisingly well-prepared for retirement compared with similarly aged households over the past quarter century. Unless there is a strong recovery of asset values in the next few years, that favorable assessment is no longer true”:

“The latest surveys of employers and households both show continued deterioration in the U.S. job market. For the 22nd consecutive month the number of payroll jobs fell. In view of the turnaround in GDP statistics in the July-September quarter, the continuing decline in both manufacturing and service-sector employment is especially disheartening. The combination of rising output and shrinking payrolls means that employers are still scrambling to find ways to produce more output with less labor input. The latest productivity numbers, released yesterday by the Labor Department, confirm that U.S. output per hour is rising strongly. This is good news for companies’ costs and possibly for future wage gains, but it is bad news for job seekers”:

“Today’s youngest Americans are likely to be worse off than their parents”:

“In the debate over climate change legislation, most of the attention to date has focused on cleaner energy sources, and more efficient technologies like electric cars. Surprisingly little attention has gone to one of the largest drivers of climate-changing emissions: the urban structure of our cities, towns and suburbs. There are important reasons why this is so – and why it must change”:

(Propaganda from elsewhere) “With 20,000 delegates, advocates and journalists jetting to Copenhagen for planet Earth’s last chance, the carbon footprint of the global warming summit will be the only impressive consequence of the climate change meeting. Its organizers had hoped it would produce binding caps on emissions, global taxation to redistribute trillions of dollars, and micromanagement of everyone’s choices”:

(A quick sidenote:) “Osama bin Laden was “within the grasp” of US forces in late 2001 but escaped because then-defense secretary Donald Rumsfeld rejected calls for reinforcements, a hard-hitting US Senate report says”:

Broadening Perspectives: The Housing Bubble Scheme

8 12 2009

Robert Penn Warren: “Historical sense and poetic sense should not, in the end, be contradictory, for if poetry is the little myth we make, history is the big myth we live, and in our living, constantly remake.”

One asks, “What has brought us here today?”

Well, unfortunately recently we here at The Placemaking Institute were for some reason regaled by then forced to relay about our Most Senior Fellow harkening watching Alan Greenspan on Capitol Hill in 2000 or 2001[i] assuring US that the housing market could never become one big bubble that bursts because it was like a glass of champagne comprised of tiny little bubbles that upon reaching the top would burst, always to be followed by yet another bubble and yet another and another and so forth; how he subsequently started thinking, “But what happens when the champagne goes flat?”; and how he “waited and waited and, being the dismal economist I can be, waited some more, always expecting each passing year to be the year it happened when, after almost eight years…Kaflooey!” He then went on to observe that while some good straightforward pieces have been written about the so-called Panic of 2008, they tend to lack any historical perspective whatsoever and can be most definitely broadened beyond the past two years to at the very least a decade.[ii]

All in unison, “How so?” The Placemaking Institute wondered.

And that is how we learned come to find out that that Greenspan fellow lowered the Fed Funds Rate (FFR) from 6.5% to 1.0% during 2001-2003, which he argues did not cause the housing bubble. It would be overly simplistic to argue that the Fed’s interest rate manipulations during the early years of this decade caused the housing bubble, and so in a sense he is correct; it would be more appropriate to view the Fed as the “great enabler” of the range of monetary excesses that led to the bubble and subsequent bust. But it is clear that the Fed set and kept its official target rate too low for too long during much of 2001-2005. Such mistakes inevitably occur when you give a person or a group of people too much power.[iii]

“So well before the bubble burst Housing had been an unsustainable mirage of wealth for Americans.”

Exactly. Because in no way should the, if you will, “masses” and/or especially so-called “experts” have construed subprime mortgages to be a safe investment. These ever-risky lending practices led to – or, better, expedited what Minsky termed “Ponzi Borrowing,” which occurs when an entity is unable to pay either the principal or the interest and yet they are able to borrow more and more. This is pretty much the root cause of the recent housing market crash as well as other historically delusional investments like tulips and selling shares of stock for gold mines in Mississippi. All at once together we here at the Placemaking Institute interrupted, “Tulips? Mississippi gold mines? How the heck did banks get away with their subprime mortgaging practices for so long?” Because Greenspan deregulated the industry, which he himself acknowledged to be a mistake: “Those of us who have looked to the self-interest of lending institutions to protect shareholders’ equity, myself included, are in a state of shocked disbelief.”

According to our Most Senior Fellow, this means that that Greenspan person, although he has most definitely indeed consumed his Ayn “Infallible” Rand, hasn’t read his Adam Smith, who would in no way have been shocked: “[The capitalist class] ought always to be listened to with great precaution, and ought never to be adopted till after having been long and carefully examined, not only with the most scrupulous, but with the most suspicious attention. It comes from an order of men, whose interest is never exactly the same with that of the public, who have generally an interest to deceive and even to oppress the public, and who accordingly have, upon many occasions, both deceived and oppressed it.”

“The Federal Reserve had broad authority to prohibit deceptive lending practices under a 1994 law called the Home Owner Equity Protection Act. But it took little action during the long housing boom, and fewer than 1 percent of all mortgages were subjected to restrictions under that law…In 2008 the Fed greatly tightened its restrictions. But by that time, the subprime market as well as the market for other kinds of exotic mortgages had already been wiped out. Mr. Greenspan said that he had publicly warned about the ‘underpricing of risk’ in 2005 but that he had never expected the crisis that began to sweep the entire financial system in 2007.”[iv]

Representative Henry Waxman: “You had the authority to prevent irresponsible lending practices that led to the subprime mortgage crisis. You were advised to do so by many others. Do you feel that your ideology pushed you to make decisions that you wish you had not made?”

Greenspan: “Yes, I’ve found a flaw. I don’t know how significant or permanent it is. But I’ve been very distressed by that fact…This crisis has turned out to be much broader than anything I could have imagined. It has morphed from one gripped by liquidity restraints to one in which fears of insolvency are now paramount…The evidence strongly suggests that without the excess demand from securitizers, subprime mortgage originations (undeniably the original source of the crisis) would have been far smaller and defaults accordingly far lower.”

Then our Most Senior Fellow bloviated forth: “The funny thing is that some people are ignoring all of that so they can continue perpetuating their pet argument about growth management leading to the burst of the housing bubble and, rather than ‘we the people’ learning from our past mistakes, they espouse that we should continue focusing literally upon pushing our society farther along the broken down highway of sprawl. (Eudora Welty: “When you are looking for what is lost, everything is a sign.”) Arguments like these that focus blame upon such adamantly precise minutia indicate an aversion to inconvenient facts and historical precedents and a predilection for promulgating myths that have long legs and slogans that are repeated often and fit on bumper stickers. (Voltaire: “History consists of a series of accumulated imaginative inventions.”) When short-term memory losses such as those they exhibit become un-indictable then so do long-term memory losses; in other words, Generations Sprawl has collectively squandered what once could have made this country pretty nifty, and most economists are asserting that this young generation will fare worse than their parents’ generation, the first time that that has happened in American history. And following sprawl-driven GDP in such manner any longer will only hinder social advancement for generations to come.”

Thomas Jefferson: “No generation can contract debts greater than may be paid during the course of its own existence.”

“Exactly, Tommy, and but alas when the ramifications of oil production peaking then subsequently dwindling are felt? That’s going to be all the growth management that we need because we as a society are going to have no choice but more compact development.”


[i] He is fallible!

[ii] (“And if I had the time,” our Most Senior Fellow side-noted, “I could broaden it to the past sixty some odd years.”)

[iii] Although we are positive the above is a paraphrase of something somebody wrote, our reference has somehow disappeared.


Tracks to the Future

2 12 2009

The Placemaking Institute’s Most Senior Fellow has just learned  that Texas Christian University is hosting a symposium on “Rail and Economic Development in North Texas” on Friday, December the 11th. Then he made it quite clear that this information be disseminitated yesterday and, on top of that, he was outright adamant we point out to you that Central Texas needs an advocacy program such as this.

(“Hey,” you ask yourself, “Why doesn’t Central Texas have an advocacy program such as this?”)

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